Computing and Partitioning Cloud Feedbacks Using Cloud Property Histograms. Part I: Cloud Radiative Kernels

TitleComputing and Partitioning Cloud Feedbacks Using Cloud Property Histograms. Part I: Cloud Radiative Kernels
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2012
JournalJournal of Climate
Number11
Pages3715-3735
Date Published06/2012
Abstract / Summary

This study proposes a novel technique for computing cloud feedbacks using histograms of cloud fraction as a joint function of cloud-top pressure (CTP) and optical depth (τ). These histograms were generated by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) simulator, which was incorporated into doubled-CO2 simulations from 11 global climate models in the Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project. The authors use a radiative transfer model to compute top-of-atmosphere flux sensitivities to cloud fraction perturbations in each bin of the histogram for each month and latitude. Multiplying these cloud radiative kernels with histograms of modeled cloud fraction changes at each grid point per unit of global warming produces an estimate of cloud feedback. Spatial structures and globally integrated cloud feedbacks computed in this manner agree remarkably well with the adjusted change in cloud radiative forcing. The global and annual mean model-simulated cloud feedback is dominated by contributions from medium thickness (3.6 < τ ≤ 23) cloud changes, but thick (τ > 23) cloud changes cause the rapid transition of cloud feedback values from positive in midlatitudes to negative poleward of 50°S and 70°N. High (CTP ≤ 440 hPa) cloud changes are the dominant contributor to longwave (LW) cloud feedback, but because their LW and shortwave (SW) impacts are in opposition, they contribute less to the net cloud feedback than do the positive contributions from low (CTP > 680 hPa) cloud changes. Midlevel (440 < CTP ≤ 680 hPa) cloud changes cause positive SW cloud feedbacks that are 80% as large as those due to low clouds. Finally, high cloud changes induce wider ranges of LW and SW cloud feedbacks across models than do low clouds.

URLhttp://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00248.1
DOI10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00248.1
Journal: Journal of Climate
Year of Publication: 2012
Number: 11
Pages: 3715-3735
Date Published: 06/2012

This study proposes a novel technique for computing cloud feedbacks using histograms of cloud fraction as a joint function of cloud-top pressure (CTP) and optical depth (τ). These histograms were generated by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) simulator, which was incorporated into doubled-CO2 simulations from 11 global climate models in the Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project. The authors use a radiative transfer model to compute top-of-atmosphere flux sensitivities to cloud fraction perturbations in each bin of the histogram for each month and latitude. Multiplying these cloud radiative kernels with histograms of modeled cloud fraction changes at each grid point per unit of global warming produces an estimate of cloud feedback. Spatial structures and globally integrated cloud feedbacks computed in this manner agree remarkably well with the adjusted change in cloud radiative forcing. The global and annual mean model-simulated cloud feedback is dominated by contributions from medium thickness (3.6 < τ ≤ 23) cloud changes, but thick (τ > 23) cloud changes cause the rapid transition of cloud feedback values from positive in midlatitudes to negative poleward of 50°S and 70°N. High (CTP ≤ 440 hPa) cloud changes are the dominant contributor to longwave (LW) cloud feedback, but because their LW and shortwave (SW) impacts are in opposition, they contribute less to the net cloud feedback than do the positive contributions from low (CTP > 680 hPa) cloud changes. Midlevel (440 < CTP ≤ 680 hPa) cloud changes cause positive SW cloud feedbacks that are 80% as large as those due to low clouds. Finally, high cloud changes induce wider ranges of LW and SW cloud feedbacks across models than do low clouds.

DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00248.1
Citation:
Zelinka, MD, SA Klein, and DL Hartmann.  2012.  "Computing and Partitioning Cloud Feedbacks Using Cloud Property Histograms. Part I: Cloud Radiative Kernels."  Journal of Climate 3715-3735.  https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00248.1.