The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) with its warm (El Niño) and cold phase (La Niña) has well-known global impacts on the Earth system through the mechanism of teleconnections. Not only the global mean temperature and precipitation distributions will be changed but also the climate extremes will be enhanced during ENSO events. In this study, the advanced Earth System Model ACME version 0.3 was used to simulate terrestrial biogeochemistry and global climate from 1982 to 2020 with prescribed Sea Surface Temperature (SST) from data fusions of the NOAA high resolution daily Optimum Interpolation SST (OISST), CFS v2 9-month seasonal forecast and data reconstructions. We investigated how ENSO-induced climate extremes affect land carbon dynamics both regionally and globally and the implications for the functioning of different vegetated ecosystems under the influence of climate extremes. The results show that the ENSO-induced climate extremes, especially drought and heat waves, have significant impacts on the terrestrial carbon cycle. The responses to ENSO-induced climate extremes are divergent among different vegetation types.