The new Energy Exascale Earth System Model Version 1 (E3SMv1) developed for the U.S. Department of Energy has significant new treatments of aerosols and light‐absorbing snow impurities as well as their interactions with clouds and radiation. This study describes seven sets of new aerosol‐related treatments (involving emissions, new particle formation, aerosol transport, wet scavenging and resuspension, and snow radiative transfer) and examines how they affect global aerosols and radiative forcing in E3SMv1. Altogether, they give a reduced total aerosol radiative forcing (−1.6 W/m2) and sensitivity in cloud liquid water to aerosols, but an increased sensitivity in cloud droplet size to aerosols. A new approach for H2SO4 production and loss largely reduces a low bias in small particles concentrations and leads to substantial increases in cloud condensation nuclei concentrations and cloud radiative cooling. Emitting secondary organic aerosol precursor gases from elevated sources increases the column burden of secondary organic aerosol, contributing substantially to global clear‐sky aerosol radiative cooling (−0.15 out of −0.5 W/m2). A new treatment of aerosol resuspension from evaporating precipitation, developed to remedy two shortcomings of the original treatment, produces a modest reduction in aerosols and cloud droplets; its impact depends strongly on the model physics and is much stronger in E3SM Version 0. New treatments of the mixing state and optical properties of snow impurities and snow grains introduce a positive present‐day shortwave radiative forcing (0.26 W/m2), but changes in aerosol transport and wet removal processes also affect the concentration and radiative forcing of light‐absorbing impurities in snow/ice.