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Publication Date
25 May 2024

Exploring the Relative Importance of the MJO and ENSO to North Pacific Subseasonal Predictability



Here we explore the relative contribution of the Madden‐Julian Oscillation (MJO) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) to midlatitude subseasonal predictive skill of upper atmospheric circulation over the North Pacific, using an inherently interpretable neural network applied to pre‐industrial control runs of the Community Earth System Model version 2. We find that this interpretable network generally favors the state of ENSO, rather than the MJO, to make correct predictions on a range of subseasonal lead times and predictand averaging windows. Moreover, the predictability of positive circulation anomalies over the North Pacific is comparatively lower than that of their negative counterparts, especially evident when the ENSO state is important. However, when ENSO is in a neutral state, our findings indicate that the MJO provides some predictive information, particularly for positive anomalies. We identify three distinct evolutions of these MJO states, offering fresh insights into opportune forecasting windows for MJO teleconnections.

Mayer, Kirsten J., William E. Chapman, and William A. Manriquez. 2024. “Exploring The Relative Importance Of The Mjo And Enso To North Pacific Subseasonal Predictability”. Geophysical Research Letters 51 (10). American Geophysical Union (AGU). doi:10.1029/2024gl108479.
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