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Publication Date
1 February 2024

The future evolution of global natural gas trade



Understanding the long-term evolution of natural gas is critical in the context of long-term energy system transitions. Here, we explicitly represent traded pipeline and liquefied natural gas (LNG) infrastructure in the Global Change Analysis Model (GCAM). We find LNG to make up a dominant share of gas trade, as it can be flexibly shipped across regions. New global investments in LNG and pipeline export infrastructure respectively range from 230 to 840 and 70-620 million tons per annum (MTPA) by 2050 across scenarios; the lower end of this range is achieved through transitioning to low-carbon energy systems along with limited trade. Our results also highlight diverging implications for regions based on their gas trade profiles. For example, Russia, which produces gas largely for pipeline exports may experience greater production losses due to liquefaction and shipping improvements and geopolitical shifts than regions oriented more toward domestic and LNG markets, such as USA and Middle East.

Yarlagadda, Brinda, Gokul Iyer, Matthew Binsted, Pralit Patel, Marshall Wise, and Jeff McLeod. 2024. “The Future Evolution Of Global Natural Gas Trade”. Iscience 27 (2). Elsevier BV: 108902. doi:10.1016/j.isci.2024.108902.
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