Global and Regional Evaluation of Energy for Water

TitleGlobal and Regional Evaluation of Energy for Water
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsLiu, Yaling, Hejazi Mohamad, Kyle Page, Kim Son H., Davies Evan, Miralles Diego G., Teuling Adriaan J., He Yujie, and Niyogi Dev
JournalEnvironmental Science & Technology
Volume50
Number17
Pages9736-9745
Abstract / Summary

Despite significant effort to quantify the interdependence of the water and energy sectors, global requirements of energy for water (E4W) are still poorly understood, which may result in biases in projections and consequently in water and energy management and policy. This study estimates water-related energy consumption by water source, sector, and process for 14 global regions from 1973 to 2012. Globally, E4W amounted to 10.2 EJ of primary energy consumption in 2010, accounting for 1.7%–2.7% of total global primary energy consumption, of which 58% pertains to fresh surface water, 30% to fresh groundwater, and 12% to nonfresh water, assuming median energy intensity levels. The sectoral E4W allocation includes municipal (45%), industrial (30%), and agricultural (25%), and main process-level contributions are from source/conveyance (39%), water purification (27%), water distribution (12%), and wastewater treatment (18%). While the United States was the largest E4W consumer from the 1970s until the 2000s, the largest consumers at present are the Middle East, India, and China, driven by rapid growth in desalination, groundwater-based irrigation, and industrial and municipal water use, respectively. The improved understanding of global E4W will enable enhanced consistency of both water and energy representations in integrated assessment models.

URLhttp://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.est.6b01065
DOI10.1021/acs.est.6b01065
Funding Program: 
Journal: Environmental Science & Technology
Year of Publication: 2016
Volume: 50
Number: 17
Pages: 9736-9745
Publication Date: 08/2016

Despite significant effort to quantify the interdependence of the water and energy sectors, global requirements of energy for water (E4W) are still poorly understood, which may result in biases in projections and consequently in water and energy management and policy. This study estimates water-related energy consumption by water source, sector, and process for 14 global regions from 1973 to 2012. Globally, E4W amounted to 10.2 EJ of primary energy consumption in 2010, accounting for 1.7%–2.7% of total global primary energy consumption, of which 58% pertains to fresh surface water, 30% to fresh groundwater, and 12% to nonfresh water, assuming median energy intensity levels. The sectoral E4W allocation includes municipal (45%), industrial (30%), and agricultural (25%), and main process-level contributions are from source/conveyance (39%), water purification (27%), water distribution (12%), and wastewater treatment (18%). While the United States was the largest E4W consumer from the 1970s until the 2000s, the largest consumers at present are the Middle East, India, and China, driven by rapid growth in desalination, groundwater-based irrigation, and industrial and municipal water use, respectively. The improved understanding of global E4W will enable enhanced consistency of both water and energy representations in integrated assessment models.

DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.6b01065
Citation:
Liu, Y, M Hejazi, P Kyle, SH Kim, E Davies, DG Miralles, AJ Teuling, Y He, and D Niyogi.  2016.  "Global and Regional Evaluation of Energy for Water."  Environmental Science & Technology 50(17): 9736-9745.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b01065.