Quantifying Flood Frequency Associated with Clustered Mesoscale Convective Systems in the United States
Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) that are clustered in time and space can have a broader impact on flooding because they have larger area coverage than that of individual MCSs. The goal of this study is to understand the flood likelihood associated with MCS clusters. To achieve this, floods in the Storm Events Database in April–August of 2007–17 are matched with clustered MCSs identified from a high-resolution MCS dataset and terrestrial conditions in a land surface dataset over the central-eastern United States. Our analysis indicates that clustered MCSs preferentially occurring in April–June are more effective at producing floods, which also last longer due to the greater rainfall per area and wetter initial soil conditions and, hence, produce greater runoff per area than nonclustered MCSs. Similar increases of flood occurrence with cluster-total rainfall size and wetter soils are also observed for each MCS cluster, especially for the overlapping rainfall areas within each cluster. These areas receive rainfall from multiple MCSs that progressively wet the soils and are therefore associated with higher flood likelihood. This study underscores the importance to understand clustered MCSs to better understand flood risks and their future changes.