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Publication Date
1 October 2021

Wind power production from very large offshore wind farms



We provide the first quantitative assessment of power production and wake generation from offshore wind energy lease areas along the U.S. east coast. Deploying 15 MW wind turbines with spacing equal to the European average, yields electricity production of 116 TWh/year or 3% of current national supply. However, power production is reduced by one-third due to wakes caused by upwind wind turbines and wind farms. Under some flow conditions whole wind farm wakes can extend up to 90 km downwind of the largest lease areas and the frequency weighted average area with a 5% velocity deficit is 2.6 times the footprint of the lease areas. Simulations including maritime corridors demonstrate reduction in the wake effects leading to power efficiency gains and may offer contingent benefits. First-order scaling rules are developed that describe how “wake shadows” from large offshore wind farms scale with prevailing meteorology and wind turbine installed densities.
“Wind Power Production From Very Large Offshore Wind Farms”. 2021. Joule 5: 2663-2686. doi:10.1016/j.joule.2021.09.002.
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