The focus of this chapter is progress in hydrology for the last 100 years. During this period, we have seen a marked transition from practical engineering hydrology to fundamental developments in hydrologic science, including contributions to Earth system science. The first three sections in this chapter review advances in theory, observations, and hydrologic prediction. Building on this foundation, the growth of global hydrology, land–atmosphere interactions and coupling, ecohydrology, and water management are discussed, as well as a brief summary of emerging challenges and future directions. Although the review attempts to be comprehensive, the chapter offers greater coverage on surface hydrology and hydrometeorology for readers of this American Meteorological Society (AMS) monograph.